Tuesday, April 26, 2011

World War II Notes

  • 1937 Germany
    • Nazi party rallies lead by Adolph Hitler
    • Hitler had been in power for 4 years, his troops were waging war in Europe
      • targeted civilians from the air
    • Germans fought along Franco's army to overthrow Spanish government
      • wanted to fight against Bolshevism
  • 1939
    • Franco was victorious
    • US and Britain failed to intervene
  • 1937 Britain
    • coronation of George VI
    • wanted to avoid future wars
  • 1936 Germany
    • meeting between Hitler and Lloyd George from Britain
    • Lloyd was very impressed with Hitler
      • he thought they did not have the desire to invade any other lands
  • 1939 US
    • US was coming out of the Great Depression
    • did not want to get involved in European problems
  • 1939 Germany
    • Nazis were strong
    • annexed Austria and seized land from Czechoslovakia
      • not much of a response from Western Europe
    • Germany is blossoming, people are working
    • industry is getting stronger
    • jobs come from industry which comes from the Nazi party
  • Germany and Russia sign a treaty that they will not take up arms against each other
    • they had an agreement to carve up easter Europe
  • Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939
  • 1939 Summer in Britain
    • Britain sent an ultimatum to Hitler to withdraw from Poland, but he did not respond
      • they went to war in response
  • Germany had conquered Poland, Warsaw was left in ruins
    • Hitler turned his attention to the west
  • Britain prepared for the worst
    • air raid drills were conducted in schools
    • the war seemed quiet at first
    • the things that they expected never came
    • people began to call it the Bore War/the Phony War
  • France 1940
    • German troops invaded
    • Denmark and Norway had fallen
    • British troops were retreating
    • the Blitzkreig consumed Europe
    • people were afraid of the troops
    • civilians abandoned their houses as refugees
    • French troops were taken prisoner by the German troops
    • the German troops lived the good life
    • by May, the French allies were defeated
    • the last of the British allies leave France
    • France is split into North and South
      • North is called Vichy
        • hotbed of the French resistance movement
        • fought against the Germans
  • Winston Churchill was the prime minister of England
    • lead them through the war
    • Britain created a new defense force with volunteers
  • London 1940
    • the bombings had begun
    • September 1940 and May 1941 was the time of heaviest bombing
    • the worst was over
    • the Blitz knocks out the infrastructure of British cities and terrorizes the city
  • Hitler is having trouble crushing Britain
    • Hitler decides against a land invasion
    • he decides to invade the Soviet Union
  • Bavaria, Germany 1941
    • he decided to break the non aggression act with Russia
    • he calls it Operation Barbarossa
    • troops began moving to the east
    • troops did not know what was going on
  • June 22, 1941
    • German troops crossed the border
    • over 3000 tanks attacked
    • the German advance was rapid around 40 miles a day
    • there is much tragedy on both sides
    • was as approaching central Russia
    • over 3 million Soviet soldiers were captured
    • German troops were allowed to kill prisoners of war
    • 600,000 Soviet prisoners of war were killed
    • Hitler visited the Eastern front
    • German tanks were approaching Moscow
    • there was fear of total collapse
  • Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
    • this is the reason the US entered WWII
    • anti-Japanese sentiment spread through the US
    • Roosevelt ordered that the Japanese Americans be detained in concentration camps
      • similar to ghettos rather than concentration camps
    • everyone's lives were changed by this total war
    • American convoys traveled to Europe
    • the US was supplying the industrial capacity for Britain even though they had not officially entered the war
      • this is why Hitler declares war on the US
  • Stalingrad, Russia
    • there was no surrender among the both sides of troops
    • around 600,000 dead/2,000,000 casualties
    • Soviet troops surrounded the city and Nazis were trapped inside
    • Nazis had better weapons, but there were more Soviets
    • this was the turning point of the war
  • there is a worldwide depression when Hitler comes to power
  • the King of England, Edward abdicated the throne because he fell in love with someone from Baltimore
  • Nazis gained enormous power between 1933-37
  • Hitler solidifies and centralizes power with himself
  • Reichstags Fire in Germany
    • Hitler takes emergency measures saying that Parliament is barred and he has full leadership control
    • he becomes the Fuhrer, or the leader
      • works on industrialization of the country
      • the entire republic is required to relate any benefit in their life to him
      • to be an enemy of the Fuhrer is to be an enemy of the Fuhrer
  • tanks are used in WWII
  • British government lead by Lloyd George appeases Germany
    • does not want to go to war because of the results of WWI
  • Franco comes to power in Spain and his plan is to crush the republicans in the country, the Spanish Civil War
    • republicans are backed by the rest of western Europe
    • US and England never formally declare war on Franco
    • English army never went into Spain
    • Fascists win the war and Franco takes power
  • Hitler annexes Austria in 1939
    • most Austrians were in favor of this
  • Hitler makes references to Jews in speeches, and calls them the problem in Mein Kampf
  • Hitler is anti-socialist
  • western European powers see that Hitler may not be the guy they thought he was
  • Hitler said that he would keep the German borders where they were, but he didn't
    • warnings say that Hitler is going to invade Poland
    • he takes Poland in one week
    • the Polish army was not prepared for this
  • Hitler creates the Hitler Youth in order to indoctrinate children in to the Nazi party
  • Stalin had killed around 5 million of his own people by the time of WWII
  • Erwin Rommel was put in charge of defending Nazi Europe from a British invasion
  • US troops wanted German civilians to see the concentration camps
    • the citizens said that they were blameless
  • Dachau
    • 30,000 prisoners were liberated
    • guards posed as prisoners as to not be punished
  • there were only 70,000 Jewish survivors in the camps
  • the Battle for Berlin was won for the Red Army in 1945
  • the Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    • over 40,000 people were killed from the bomb
    • people were severely wounded and even got cancer
    • it is unknown how many people died from these injuries
    • August 6, 1945
    • these was the result of the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor
    • the battle of Midway occurred
    • the atomic bomb was created and used in this bombing
  • April 12, 1945
    • Franklin Roosevelt died
    • he had brought them out of the economic depression
    • before he died he was laying the foundation for WWI in Yalta
    • Harry Truman becomes President
    • tensions begin between Soviet Union and US
      • has to do with Poland
        • Germany had invaded Poland in the beginning of the war
        • the US wanted a democracy in Poland
        • Russia wanted a government that would be a friend of Russia
      • in Japan, US bombers had been targeting cities
        • wiped out part of Tokyo
        • thought the war would be over by fall of 1945 because of all the bombings
        • few factories were left in Japan
        • Japan was helpless
        • Japanese politicians realized that their country could not hold on much longer
  • Nuremberg Trials
    • Nazis had to attest to their crimes
    • many Nazis chose suicide
    • charged for crimes against peace and humanity
    • to lay down a foundation for the future of European politics and world politics
    • laws and definitions surrounding genocide
  • Cuba had been a Spanish colony
    • Cuban Missile Crisis- nuclear missiles were being built up in Cuba by the Soviet and Cuban government
    • we were close to a nuclear war
    • the Soviets back down and the missiles are removed
    • there is still an embargo on Cuba- no goods can be sold to Cuba, and people are not allowed to visit Cuba
    • this occurred during Kennedy's presidency
  • Boris Pasternak
    • protested what was happening in the Soviet Union with Stalin
    • poet and novelist
    • anti-Soviet
    • wrote Doctor Zhivago
    • popularized Russian literature in the US
  • KGB- secret police in the Soviet Union
  • Nikita Khrushchev
    • led the Soviet Union during the Cold War
  • Perestroika
    • political movement with the Communist Party of the USSR
    • Soviet leader Gorbachev
    • restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system
    • Yeltsin took over after Gorbachev
      • his reign ended in a coups
      • the end of the Soviet Union
  • the Soviet Union was reorganized into the Russian Federation
    • all of the countries involved with the USSR became independent
    • fighting the Soviet-Afghan war at the end of the USSR
    • the US directly funded the Afghan troops, and then they turned on us
  • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)
    • the foundation of the nuclear draw down movement between the Soviet Union and the US
  • Sputnik
    • spacecraft missions launched by the US
    • the US got behind so they made an investment in public education in math and science
  • Arab League
    • a regional organization of Arab states in North and Northeast Africa, and Southwest Asia
    • major player in the talks related to Palestine and Israel
    • politics surrounding oil production
  • Tito was the leader of Yugoslavia
    • extremely brutal
    • genocide broke out; Muslims were killed
  • Ghana- first former British colony in Africa to become independent
    • Post-Colonialism
  • Gandhi leads the independence movement in India
    • assassinated by Hindu nationalists
    • the death of Gandhi resulted in the Muslims moving north into Pakistan
  • Iran-Iraq War
    • Iran- Persian, Shiite Muslims
    • Iraq- Arabs, Sunni Muslims
    • Iraq does not want to be an Islamic state
  • after WWII there were moves of Jews out of Europe into Palestine
    • called the Zionist Movement
  • Margaret Thatcher
    • force in British politics through the 80s
    • anti-communist
    • force in the Cold War against the Soviet Union
  • Nelson Mandela
    • first South African President
    • fought against apartheid
    • whites made sure that blacks received terrible educations so they could not rise up against them
    • he was jailed for his works
    • after he was released he became president
  • Pervez Musharraf
    • Pakistani President
  • Solidarity
    • the movement in Poland to break from the Soviet Union
    • Lech Walesa- leader
    • Poland won against the Soviet Union

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