Thursday, January 27, 2011

Russia in the 18th Century Free Response

Analyze the methods and degrees of success of Russian political and social reform from the period of Peter the Great (1689-1725) through Catherine the Great (1762-1796).

1st: brief background info, thesis
2nd: Peter the Great's reign/accomplishments
3rd: Catherine the Great's reign/accomplishments
4th: the ideals that make Peter the Great and Catherine the Great similar and how Peter the Great influenced Catherine the Great
5th: conclusion, wrap up the argument

In 1689, Peter Romanov became the sole ruler of the Russian throne.  He worked throughout his reign to make Russia into a country that is updated with the trends of Western Europe.  He worked very hard to make Russia a modern and westernized country, and he wanted Russia to become a much stronger country; this is why he became known as Peter the Great.  Catherine II became empress of Russia in 1762.  She carried on the work that Peter the Great started in modernizing and westernizing Russia.  She became known as Catherine the Great because of her similar ideals to Peter the Great and because of her work to bring Russia up to par with the rest of Western Europe.  Peter the Great's knowledge of Western European tactics concerning warfare as well as industrial and administrative ideals, along with Catherine the Great being a patron of the arts and her support from the people, made them determined to westernize and modernize Russia, resulting in their reigns being the most influential time periods in Russian history.

When Peter first became sole ruler of Russia, he decided to take this opportunity to travel around Europe gaining knowledge on the administrative and industrial strategies of Western European countries.  This made Peter realize how far behind Russia was militarily, politically, and socially.  He became determined to modernize and westernize Russia.  In 1698, Peter returned to Russia and began his plan to make Russia more like Western European countries.  Peter changed the attire of Russian men, created new schools, changed the alphabet as well as the calendar, and changed the royal title from Tsar to Emperor.  One of his biggest reforms was moving the capital of Russia from Moscow to St. Petersburg.  Peter was an extremely controversial ruler in Russian history, but his reforms began the change from a traditional, conservative Russia into a more modern, westernized Russia.

Catherine became empress of Russia in 1762 when she stole the throne from her husband, Peter III.  People all over Russia greatly supported Catherine and her ideas, but this is not the only reason that she is considered the most successful ruler in Russian history.  She continued the reforms that Peter the Great began generations earlier.  She was a great diplomat of her time period, and she increased central control over the European provinces.  Catherine increased Russia's interaction with other European countries as well as the territories held in Central and Eastern Europe.  Catherine was also a huge patron for the arts, which encouraged her to found many academies and libraries throughout Russia.  She agreed with the ideals of French Encyclopedist, Voltaire.  Catherine was so successful because she worked off of the ideas of Peter the Great, which were not completely successful then.  Catherine was able to finish the work that Peter the Great started so many years earlier.

Peter the Great and Catherine the Great were able to bring Russia up to par with the rest of Europe.  Russia had fallen behind and was much less advanced than other European countries.  Peter and Catherine shared the same concepts and ideals.  They both truly cared for Russia and wanted it to be successful.  They both also wanted Russia to be more modernized and westernized.  Peter was able to begin the reforms, but because his ideas were new and different, it was difficult for people to accept them.  Catherine was able to successfully finish the reforms that Peter had begun because the ideas were no longer new ideas, and people were getting used to the new way of life.  Also, Catherine was greatly supported by the people before she even became empress, which definitely helped her ideas to become successful.  Peter made the most extreme reforms in Russia, which allowed Catherine to be able to continue his ideas and also implement her own.

The reigns of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great were considered the most successful in Russian history.  They both had similar ideals and tactics on advancing Russia to a new level of success.  Peter and Catherine were able to improve the government of Russia as well as their military.  They were revolutionists of their time, and they brought ideas to Russia that people had never thought of.  At first, during Peter's reign, people could not accept Peter's tactics to change Russia because they were too new and different for them.  Catherine was able to continue Peter's reforms and changes during her reign, and the reforms were more successful during her reign because she had the support of the people.  Peter the Great was able to gain so much knowledge from his travelling in Western Europe that he was able to use to reform Russia, and Catherine was able to benefit from this knowledge throughout her reign.  Peter the Great and Catherine the Great were very determined to modernize and westernize Russia, which lead to their reigns being the most successful.

Monday, January 24, 2011

Peter the Great

  1. Russian Empire- continued after the four empires ended in WWI
  2. rise and fall of empires is a theme of this course
  3. Peter Great was given for expanding Russia
  4. what Peter the Great did-pushed back the neighbors that had blocked the expansion of Moscow-Sweden
  5. Poltava, Poland, Turks, and Swedes are defeated for expansion
  6. dreamed of capturing Constantinople that would give him control of the straights to black sea
  7. peter the great was te first of Russian tsars that dreamed of this-
  8. Azov-access of black sea-lose and are forced to surrender after an unsuccessful
  9. despite this dramatic expansion of Russian empire, does not get this outlet to the black sea
  10. Russia's participation in European affairs had been minimal-
  11. Louis XIV sent a letter to Russian Tsar who had been dead for 12 years because Russia was so out of communication
  12. after Russian victories began, Europeans began to recognize Peter and began to have a fear of him and Sweden too with Gustavus Adolphus
  13. There is no other European states expanding their empire overseas that adds as much land to its empire from the 1630-1740’s as Russia
  14. about 2 million square miles
  15. first child of father’s second wife
  16. Boyar threw over nobles
  17. died in 1725-no strict rules for succession of tsar
  18. family battle royale
  19. no foreign minister-
  20. council of the nobles-met in the throne of nobles-known as Duma
  21. his absolutism is because of his personality
  22. opening up of Russia to Euro ideas
  23. he does this himself
  24. as a boy he was very smart and into science
  25. traveled often to Europe
  26. took archaic structure and transforms it into an absolute monarchy
  27. common to Hapsburg, France, Sweden
  28. wants to open up Russia to commerce-wanted wealth for improvement of Russian life
  29. made Russia a huge military power
  30. injects European culture
  31. the tension in Russia between
  32. peter was at least 6 foot 7-guards of Frederick the Great were Giants because they were six feet tall
  33. most people were 5 foot 4
  34. napoleon was the average height of most people in France
  35. he had extremely small hands and feet and stumbles sometimes when he walked
  36. odd facial ticks that he could not help-turrets
  37. torturous-sometimes kept people alive to suffer longer-had people come and watch so that people could be warned not to act up
  38. executed people himself
  39. incidents where his merciful side came through as well-when it came to treason he was less likely to be nice
  40. ex. his son that he tortured
  41. his second wife was a Latvian peasant maid- the nobles thought it was horrific
  42. he was capable of playing the role of a tsar but there are more images of him in battered clothing to recognize his struggles
  43. like the company of ordinary people-identified himself with the common people
  44. liked to walk, avoided carriages
  45. commoners were sometimes better dressed than he was
  46. ate standing up and jumped from table to table to socialize
  47. liked living in a basic peasant house found in the outskirts of Moscow
  48. drunken assembly-mock parliament
  49. getting wasted then making mockery decisions
  50. saying that being a Tsar is more than just playing the role
  51. he had to manifest strength, firmness, and bravery
  52. got to work earliest
  53. loved maps and geography-self taught
  54. made spelling mistakes-had bad handwriting
  55. built a private library with ordinary books and teaching books
  56. sang religious music and played the drums
  57. peter wanted a navy-needed a port
  58. he first built a navy on rivers using Dutch shipmasters from Amsterdam
  59. learned Dutch in 1696 he went to western Europe incognito to learn military skills
  60. interested in baroque
  61. makes nobles junior partners in absolutism
  62. asked men and women to dress like European and to adopt non-Russian customs for Russia
  63. tremendous tensions with the church even though he is deeply religious
  64. some put on western styled wigs
  65. women began to wear heals
  66. his son was more under influence of tradition
  67. plots against his father
  68. father tortures him
  69. son dies of a cold after being put in a cell
  70. weakened
  71. what lasted was the Europeanization of western culture
  72. has books translated from west into Russian
  73. Russian students sent abroad to study at universities
  74. peter was a son of European rationalism-rationality rather than traditionalism
  75. not against the church but thought people were wasting their time being monks
  76. did not serve state or the dynasty
  77. in Siberia, this empire amounted to little more than a series of trading posts. Peter the great creates this empire that will have great influence after a while
  78. will have an enormous influence on Asian powers as well
  79. open up Russia to commerce knowing that trade means wealth
  80. makes Russia a military power in 17th and early 18th century
  81. injects euro culture into Russia
  82. what is Russian that should stay non-secular and what is Russian that should be modified?
  83. peter is at least 6’7’’--extremely small hands and small feet
  84. very torturous
  85. enormous ambivalent to his power-married a Latvian commoner
  86. boyars-horrified
  87. sad childhood
  88. loved sleeping on ships-rocking allowed him to sleep
  89. he ate peasant food
  90. had a natural manner-could be considered inappropriate
  91. liked masquerades
  92. always took fake names as commoners so that he would look like a peasant
  93. very interested in the sciences

Friday, January 21, 2011

Midterm Exam

Free Response 1: Describe and analyze how overseas expansion by European states affected global trade and international relations from 1600 to 1715.

1st: Intro- background info, thesis
2nd: benefited both Europe and the Americas
3rd: international relations/trade/colonization
4th: slavery, treaty of Utrecht- port of Gibraltar
5th: conclusion, summarize and close the argument

Throughout the 1600s and into the early 1700s, Europe was constantly gaining more power throughout the world.  They were able to get crops from the Americas and bring them to European countries, as well as bring their own crops and animals into the Americas in order to make them successful.  The slave trade also began in the Americas giving European countries huge power in Africa as well as the Americas.  The overseas expansion by European states, such as Portugal, Spain, and England, not only allowed Europe to be the leading power throughout the world, but also benefited the Americas through gaining crops and beginning slavery.

Europe's expansion overseas not only affected Europe itself, but also greatly affected the Americas.  It showed other countries how Europe was the leading power in the world and that they would be for quite a  long time.  Europe was able to bring crops such as potatoes, wheat, and cotton, and animals such as horses to the Americas.  These things were extremely beneficial to the newly developing continent.  These crops and animals are still greatly being used today, and they have a lot to do with the tremendous power that America has in the world.  Countries throughout Europe, such as Spain, Portugal, and England, were able to to create trade routes all over the world, specifically to the Americas.

Europe was able to become a huge world power, which is still extremely powerful today.  If they had never come to the Americas, they would have never been able to set up colonies or create new trade routes.  European countries were able to show the world and other countries of the world that they planned to be the biggest power-holders in the world for a long time.  They have trade routes throughout most of the world, and they are able to make alliances with these trading partners.  They were able to build up their power through exploring places in the world that no one else had explored.  They created trade routes that other countries could use as well especially the Americas.  European countries were the reason for the successfulness of trade throughout the world by being the first to create trade routes with other countries of the world.

In the 1600s, the Treaty of Utrecht gave Europe the port of Gibraltar, which extremely beneficial to them.  This allowed them to begin the slave trade with the Americas.  Although this is a terrible time in world history, it greatly affected the future of Europe and the Americas.  Without the slave trade, Europe may not have become as powerful a nation as it is today.  The slave trade was also very beneficial to the Americas because it gave them so much power in the world.  The slave trade forever changed the history of the world, but it really only benefited the European countries and the Americas.  Many other countries did not take part in this event, and Africa was obviously greatly devastated by this.  This Treaty of Utrecht was an extremely important part of European History.

The overseas expansion by European countries gave Europe tremendous power throughout the world.  Without this expansion, Europe would not be nearly as powerful as it is today.  The Americas would also not be as powerful as they are now without the gain of major crops, such as potatoes, cotton, wheat, and horses. The slave trade was the biggest move that the Europeans could have made throughout this time period.  It truly made them the greatest world power of the time period.

Free Response 2: Discuss the political and social consequences of the Protestant Reformation in the first half of the sixteenth century.

1st: intro- background info, thesis
2nd: effects of the 95 Theses
3rd: creation of Lutheranism and Calvinism
4th: council of worms, Martin Luther
5th: conclusion, summarize and close the argument

In 1517, Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses on the door of the Basilica.  This stated all of the things that Luther believed was wrong with the Church.  From this event came, Luther's own religion, Lutheranism, as well as Calvinism, created by John Calvin.  The Church did its best to stop what Martin Luther was preaching with the Council of Worms, but it was a fairly unsuccessful attempt.  The Protestant Reformation, with the posting of the 95 Theses by Martin Luther, created Lutheranism, Calvinism, and several other branches of Protestantism as well as resulted in the fairly unsuccessful Council of Worms, forever changing the Europe's religious history.

When Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses on the door of the Basilica, the Protestant Reformation officially began.  Martin Luther did not agree with the beliefs and teachings of the Church, and he decided to take matters into his own hands.  The Church immediately reprimanded Martin Luther because they did not want him to spark a rebellion in the people.  He did not care what the Church was going to do to him, he just wanted to tell the Church how much he truly disagreed with what they were doing.  He greatly disliked the selling of indulgences because the money was going straight to the Church to help them pay for special luxuries.  The Church could not withstand this event and remain one Church; it had to split.

The posting of the 95 Theses sparked the creation of Lutheranism and Calvinism.  Lutheranism was created by Martin Luther himself, and he could change everything that he disliked about the Church and make his own rules, teachings, and beliefs.  Calvinism was created by John Calvin, who also greatly disagreed with the teachings of the Church; although, he did not have the idea to post the 95 Theses like Martin Luther did.  Lutheranism and Calvinism still had some of the same general beliefs of the Church, but they changed the things that they did not believed were right with the Church.  They are still fairly prominent religions, but Calvinism is not as prominent as Lutheranism.

The Church held the Council of Worms after the posting of the 95 Theses in order to condemn Martin Luther and order him to repudiate his teachings.  He was much too determined to renounce his own teachings, and refused to do so.  The Church then sent him to the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, to be dealt with.  However, the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, was busy with other matters, and did not have the time to deal with Martin Luther.  This is why the attempt by the Church to condemn Martin Luther, through the Council of Worms, was extremely unsuccessful.  Martin Luther did not renounce his teachings, and he was basically let off as a free man.

The Protestant Reformation was a source of tension for the Church as well as European countries.  The Church had already been split by Henry VIII years earlier when the Church would not allow him to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon.  The Church was taking huge hits during this time period, and it greatly affected its power in the world.  The Church was continuing to split and branch off into smaller, non-united parts.  This was greatly diminishing its power throughout the world.  Martin Luther was right to express his dislikes about the Church, but they caused so many religious and social issues throughout.

DBQ 1: Analyze the concerns and goals of participants in the Pilgrimage of Grace and of those who opposed the movement.

1st: Intro- background info, thesis
2nd: Henry VIII signing the Act of Supremacy/its effects
3rd: goals of the Pilgrimage of Grace
4th: opposition to the Pilgrimage of Grace
5th: conclusion, summarize and close the argument

In 1534, Henry VIII signed the Act of Supremacy which made him the leader of the Anglican Church.  Thomas Cromwell then granted laws which were in favor of himself and the King.  This outraged the people, and they began to protest against these actions of Thomas Cromwell and King Henry VIII.  Protesters wrote petitions stating that they wanted "to have the supreme head of the Church be the pope in Rome as before" (document 5).  All the people wanted was the Church and the King to back to the way they were before the Act of Supremacy.    King Henry VIII's signing of the Act of Supremacy, making him head of the Anglican Church, sparked many rebellions against himself and Thomas Cromwell called the Pilgrimage of Grace, which many took part in while others greatly opposed; this was the first step towards the Protestant Reformation.

When King Henry VIII signed the Act of Supremacy, he was given the privileges and the powers that the pope had in Rome.  He was basically able to do anything that he wanted with the Church.  Thomas Cromwell then passed several laws that benefited King Henry VIII as well as himself.  It infuriated the people that this was happening, and they felt as if their leader cared only for himself, and not for the safety of his own citizens. A marchers' proclamation states, "Because the rulers of this country do not defend us from being robbed by thieves and Scots, we have to rely on charity, faith, poverty, and pity" (document 2).  Catholic monks wrote a ballad, which was proclaimed by the protesters, saying "Great God's fame does the Church proclaim now to be lame and held in bonds.  Robbed, spoiled and shorn of cattle and corn, houses and lands" (document 4).  The people are extremely upset that the Church is now being controlled by the King, and they want it to return to the way it was before.

The members of the Pilgrimage of Grace wanted to show King Henry VIII and Thomas Cromwell how much they truly hated what is happening with the Church.  They did not want their King to be the ruler of their Church, people believed that these things should be kept separately.  There was an oath that marchers actually took when joining the Pilgrimage of Grace, it stated for them to join "only for your love God, for the Holy Catholic Church militant" (document 1).  The protesters marched all around monasteries and anywhere that their opinion could be heard.  Even Sir Thomas Tempest, who was a former member of Parliament, said, "The King should grant our petition against the traitor Thomas Cromwell and his adherents, or at least exile them from the realm" (document 6).  This man used to work in union with the King and he is also against what has just occurred; this truly shows how wrong the signing of the Act of Supremacy was.

There were also many people who opposed the work and ideas of the Pilgrimage of Grace.  Obviously, Thomas Cromwell and King Henry VIII disagreed with what the participants in the Pilgrimage of Grace were doing.  Richard Morrison, a writer hired by Thomas Cromwell, stated, "Those that are of the worser sort must be content that the wiser rule and govern them" (document 7).  He is showing how he believes that the people are not smart or worthy enough to have an opinion in the government, but this is how things work in an absolute monarchy.  The people have no say, and the leader has complete power.  A Catholic priest, named Nicholas Leche, said, "During the whole insurrection, not one gentleman tried to warn the commoners of Lincoln that it was treason" (document 8).  This priest wishes that someone would have stopped the people and warned them that what they were doing was directly offensive to the king, but no one did, and many people along with the priest were convicted.

When King Henry VIII signed the Act of Supremacy, he created great tension with the people of England.  The people did not want Henry to rule all of the land and the Church; it was too much power for one person to hold.  They began protests called the Pilgrimage of Grace, in which many participants were convicted; around 65% were usually convicted out of all of the participants (document 10).  The Pilgrimage of Grace was a very controversial thing.  The people involved truly believed in what they were doing, but did not know that it went directly against the King.  The King should have thought more about what a drastic thing he was doing to the country of England by splitting the Church and how they people would rebel, before he signed the Act of Supremacy.

Friday, January 14, 2011

DBQ Practice 1

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the sciences were just beginning to flourish.  The scientists were extremely outgoing in their works and discoveries, but they could have accomplished so much more had they not faced so much adversary.  So many things were discovered about the universe and they way things work on Earth, but there was so much more to be proven.  Scientists of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were encouraged to succeed by the state, but they were not able to reach their full potential due to social and religious factors such as gender discrimination and going against the beliefs of the Church.
The government truly wanted the scientists within their own country to be extremely successful.  “The splendor and happiness of the State consists in . . . causing the arts and sciences to flourish” (Document 11).  The government primarily cares about looking good to other countries, and having inventions and discoveries that other countries have not yet found.  Louis XIV even visited the French Royal Academy in order to see the works of the scientists there and comment them on their discoveries (Document 10). The following quotation is Henry Oldenbury, Secretary of the English Royal Society, commending scientist, Johannes Hevelius, for his great works.  “Friendship among learned men is a great aid to the investigation and elucidation of the truth” (Document 6).  The government supported the scientists and wanted them to be the most successful in the world.
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, women were not seen as intelligent people.   No one would have ever thought that a woman could be a successful scientist.  Margaret Cavendish says, “Were it allowable for our sex, I might set up my own school of natural philosophy” (Document 9).  Imagine the things that could have been discovered, if every highly intelligent woman was able to open a school and pursue a scientific career.  These women could have not only discovered things themselves, but could have also taught other people who then invented things.  Scientists were truly not allowed to reach their full potential in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the greatest adversary that the science world faced was the Church.  Scientists were constantly discovering things and coming up with theories that the Church did not agree with.  In particular, Galileo’s idea of heliocentrism went against the Church’s belief of geocentrism, and he was constantly condemned by the Church.  Giovanni Ciampoli, an Italian monk, wrote to Galileo saying, “showing your willingness to defer to the authority of those who have jurisdiction over the human intellect in matters of the interpretation of Scripture” (Document 3).  He was condemning Galileo for trying to interpret Scripture, which is what the Church constantly did during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
The scientists of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were constantly condemned and not able to reach their full potential.  According to Nicolaus Copernicus, “I be not wholly deceived, will hold that my labors contribute even to the well being of the Church” (Document 1).  Scientists truly believed that what they were doing was for the good of all as well as the Church.  John Calvin even said, “It cannot be denied that this art unfolds the admirable wisdom of God” (Document 2).  He believed that the scientific discoveries actually showed God’s greatness.  Scientists were not allowed to be as successful as they were capable of because of all the obstacles that they faced.

Tuesday, January 11, 2011

Practice Thesis Statements

 1. Analyze the ways in which European monarchs used both the arts and the sciences to
enhance state power in the period circa 1500–1800.

 2. Analyze the various Protestant views of the relationship between church and state in
the period circa 1500–1700.

The Protestant

 3. Analyze the various effects of the expansion of the Atlantic trade on the economy of
Western Europe in the period circa 1450–1700.

 4. Compare and contrast the economic factors responsible for the decline of Spain with
the economic factors responsible for the decline of the Dutch Republic by the end of
the seventeenth century.

 5. Analyze various ways in which the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) represented a
turning point in European history.

The Thirty Years' War represented a turning point in European history through the effects that it had on the countries involved; such as 

Practice Free Response Essay 1

 Analyze the various effects of the expansion of the Atlantic trade on the economy of
Western Europe in the period circa 1450–1700.

Around 1450-1700 Western Europe expanded their Atlantic trade.  They began exploring other parts of the world, and even building colonies in some of these places.  They began to explore Africa as well as the Americas.  Western Europe gained many things from this new land, which they were able to use in order to enhance their own economy.  Western Europe’s expansion of Atlantic trade, through exploration and colonization, not only improved their own economy, but also the economy of America, through sharing new trade products and crops as well as beginning the slave trade.
Western Europe began exploring other parts of the world around the mid-1400s.  They first started out with primarily explorers from Portugal and Spain.  Some of these people were Christopher Columbus, Francisco Pizarro, and Hernando Cortez.  These explorers discovered areas in the Americas.  Christopher Columbus came to the New World in 1492; Francisco Pizarro discovered what is now Florida; and Hernando Cortez fought the Incans in Peru.  Without these people discovering the New World, Europe would not have been able to build and expand their power into the colonies, which was so important to their economic success as a continent.
Europe was able to gain so many prominent crops and trade products from the New World.  They were able to gain things like corn and potatoes, but they also brought crops and trade products along with them to the Americas.  They introduced horses as well as wheat and cotton.  The expansion of trade to the Americas not only benefited Europe, but also benefited the New World by introducing trade crops that are still huge in America today.  Without the discovery of these products, Europe’s economy would not have skyrocketed and they would not be as prominent a continent as they are today.
The slave trade began around the mid-1600s with the European colonies that were built in the Americas.  The slave trade had a lot to do with the Treaty of Utrecht which gave Europe a trade route right into the Americas through they could import the slaves.  If this treaty had never occurred the slave trade may not have even happened.  Though the slave trade was a terrible time in the history of Europe and the Americas, without the economy of Europe and the Americas would not have been the same.  Europe basically gained control over most of the world including America with the beginning of the slave trade.
It is hard to imagine what the world would be like today if Europe had never expanded trade across the Atlantic Ocean and into the Americas.  Europe’s economy was so hugely boosted that they became the leading continent out of the entire world.  They also had a great impact on the future economy of America by giving it so many useful crops and trade products which are still greatly used today.  Through Europe’s exploration of the New World, they gained what they needed to become the prime leaders of the world at that time and far into the future.

Monday, January 10, 2011

Exam Review

  1. Galileo Galilei
  2. Johannes Kepler
  3. Tyco Brahe
  4. Copernicus
  5. Three things that separated France and Russia
    • Holy Roman Empire, Poland, Ottoman Empire
    • Austria and Prussia rose up as the leading German states
  6. One problem with Poland's structure of government
    • Lack of centralized authority figure
    • Elected kings not usually from Poland
  7. Leader of the Ottoman Empire
  8. Habsburgs
  9. Charles VI*
    • Reigned in the first half of the eighteenth century
    • Pragmatic sanction- the territories of the Habsburg Empire are inseparable
      • Empire would be passed on to his daughter, Maria Theresa
      • She would get this inheritance because of the pragmatic sanction
      • In exchange he made deals with the other countries that there would be peace
    • Charles dies and almost immediately the sanction is brought into a difficult situation
  10. Prussia
    • Part of the Holy Roman Empire
    • The rise of Prussia
    • Absolutism in Prussia
      • Hohenzollern Family
        • The strongest family in Prussia
      • Brandenburg
      • The Junkers
      • Estates
  11. Russia and Austria
    • In Russia, there is debate as to whether Russia is western or eastern Europe
    • Russia sees itself that after the Turks took over Constantinople, they were Eastern Orthodox
    • In Russia, rulers are called the czars: Ivan the Terrible
    • Russian rulers
      • Ivan the Terrible- 16th century reign
        • Sense of apartness from Europe
        • Renaissance goes to Russia
        • Time of Troubles occurs after Ivan dies
      • Michael Romanov
        • Elected the czar of Russia
      • Peter the Great
        • The greatest ruler
        • Ruled from 1789-1825
        • Fully recognized that Russia had fallen behind compared to Europe
        • Brought Russia up to speed
        • Built the city of St. Petersburg
  12. French, Spanish, Portuguese Exploration
    • Prince Henry the Navigator- Portugal- Madieras and Azores
    • Bartholomew Diaz- Portugal- reached the Cape of Good Hope (tip of Africa)
    • Vasco de Gama- Portugal- went around the tip of Africa
    • Pedro Cabral- Portugal- found Brazil
    • Treaty of Tordesillas- split South America in two with Portuguese getting Brazil
    • Christopher Columbus- Spain- discovered America
    • Vasco de Balboa- Spain- sailed through the Isthmus of Panama
    • Hernando Cortez- Spain- fought the Aztecs in Mexico
    • Francisco Pizarro- Spain- fought the Incans in Peru
    • Magellan- Spain- first person to circumnavigate the globe
    • Ponce de Leon- Spain- found Florida
  13. Francis Drake and John Hawkins
    • Seadogs
  14. English coming to the New World
    • Landed in Jamestown in 1607